TIPPING BIBLIOGRAPHY

Compiled by Michael Lynn

 

 

PUBLISHED ARTICLES, BOOKS & CHAPTERS

 

 

Adelman, Susan (1985), "How Your Customers Decide What to Tip," NRA News, (June/July), 43-44.

Anderson, John E. and Orn B. Bodvarsson (2005), �Tax Evasion on Gratuities,� Public Finance Review, 33 (4), 466-487.

Anderson, John and Orn Bodvarsson (2005), �Do Higher Tipped Minimum Wages Boost Server Pay?,� Applied Economics Letters, 12, 391-393.

Anonymous (1940), �Fair Labor Standards Act. Tips as Wages.� Columbia Law Review, 40(7), 1262-1267.

Archibigi, Daniele (2004), �Tips and Democracy,� Dissent, 51 (2), 59-64.

Ayres, Ian, Frederick Vars, and Nasser Zakariya (2005), �To Insure Prejudice:Racial Disparities in Taxicab Tipping,� Yale Law Journal, 114, 1613-1674. Draft version available online at: http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=401201.

Azar, Ofer H. (2003). �The Implications of Tipping for Economics and Management,� International Journal of Social Economics, 30 (10), 1084-1094.

Azar, Ofer H. (2004), �Optimal Monitoring with External Incentives: The Case of Tipping,� Southern Economic Journal, 71 (1), 170-180.

Azar, Ofer H. (2004), "What Sustains Social Norms and How They Evolve? The Case of Tipping."Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 54, 49-64.

Azar, Ofer H. (2004), �The History of Tipping � from Sixteenth-Century England to United States in the 1910s� Journal of Socio-Economics, 33, 745-764.  

Azar, Ofer H. (2005), �Who Do We Tip and Why? An Empirical Investigation. Applied Economics, 37 (16), 1871-1879.

Azar, Ofer H. (2005), �The Social Norm of Tipping: Does it Improve Social Welfare?� Journal of Economics, 85 (2), 141-173.

Azar, Ofer H. (2007), �The Social Norm of Tipping: A Review,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37 (2), 380-402.

Azar, Ofer H. (2007), � Do People Tip Strategically, to Improve Future Service? Theory and Evidence, � Canadian Journal of Economics, 40 (2), 515-527.

Azar, Ofer H. (2007), �Why Pay Extra? Tipping and the Importance of Social Norms and Feelings in Economic Theory.� Journal of Socio-Economics, 36, 250-265.

Azar, Ofer H. (2008), �Strategic Behavior and Social Norms in Tipped Service Industries,� The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, 8 (1), article 7.

Azar, Ofer H. (forthcoming), �Incentives and Service Quality in the Restaurant Industry: The Tipping-Service Puzzle.� Applied Economics.

Azar, Ofer H. (forthcoming). �Tipping, Firm Strategy and Industrial Organization.� In Columbus, Frank (ed.), Focus on Consumer Economics Research, Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Azar, Ofer and Yossi Tobol (forthcoming). �Tipping as a Strategic Investment in Service Quality: An Optimal-Control Analysis of Repeated Interactions in the Service Industry,� Southern Economic Journal.

Barkan, Rachel, Ido Erev, EinatZinger and Mayan Tzach (2004). �Tip Policy, Visibility and Quality of Service in Cafes,� Tourism Economics, 10 (4), 449-462.

Barkan, Rachel and Aviad Israeli (2004), �Testing Servers� Roles as Experts and Managers of Tipping Behaviour,� Service Industries Journal, 24 (6), 91-108.

Bayard de Volo, Lorraine (2003). �Service and Surveillance: Infrapolitics at Work among Casino Cocktail Waitresses.� Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, 10(3), 346-376.

Bearman, Peter (2005), Doormen, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, pp. 171-191.

Ben-Zion, Uri and Edi Karni (1977), "Tip Payments and the Quality of Service," in O.C. Ashenfelter & W.E. Oates,(Eds.), Essays in Labor Market Analysis, New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 37- 44.

Bills, David B. (1999), �Labor Market Information and Selection in a Local Restaurant Industry: The Tenuous Balance Between Rewards, Commitments and Costs,� Sociological Forum, 14 (4), 583-607.

Bodvarsson, Orn and William Gibson (1992), "The Effects of Service and Patronage Frequency on Restaurant Gratuities," Atlantic Economic Journal, 20 (4), 91.

Bodvarsson, Orn and William Gibson (1994), �Gratuities and Customer Appraisal of Service:Evidence from Minnesota Restaurants,� Journal of Socio-Economics, 23(3), 287-302.

Bodvarsson, Orn and William Gibson (1997), �Economics and Restaurant Gratuities:Determining Tip Rates,� American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 56(2), 187-203.

Bodvarsson, Orn and William Gibson (1999), "An Economic Approach to Tips and Service Quality: Results of a Survey," The Social Science Journal, 36(1), 137-147.

Bodvarsson, Orn B., William A. Luksetich and Sherry McDermott (2003), �Why do Diners Tip: Rule of Thumb or valuation of Service?,� Applied Economics, 35, 1659-1665.

Boyes, William, William Stewart Mounts Jr., and Clifford Sowell (2005), �Monitoring and Moral Hazard in Restaurant Tipping,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34 (12), 2616-2628.

Brauer, J. (1997), �Tipping Your Waiter: A Useful Formula for Employee Compensation,� The Augusta Regional Business Journal, (Sept). Available online at http://www.aug.edu/~sbajmb/abc017.htm .

Brewster, Zachary W. (2003). �Behavioral and Interactional Patterns of Strip Club Patrons: Tipping Techniques and Club Attendance,� Deviant Behavior, 24, 221-243.

Brewster, Zachary W. and Christine Mallinson (forthcoming). �Racial Differences in restaurant Tipping: A Labour Process Perspective,� Service Industries Journal.

Brown, Nancy E. and Sophia A. Rolle (1991). �Tips versus Service Charges: The Iowa Scene.� Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 32(1), 74-81.

Butcher, Ken and Asad Kayani (2008), �Waiting for Service: Modeling the Effectiveness of Service Interventions,� Service Business, 2, 153-165.

Butler, Suellen and William Snizek (1976), "The Waitress-Diner Relationship," Sociology of Work and Occupations, 3 (2), 209-222.

Butler, Suellen and James K. Skipper (1980), "Waitressing, Vulnerability and Job Autonomy: The Case of the Risky Tip," Sociology of Work and Occupations, 7 (4), 487-502.

Butler, Suellen and James K. Skipper (1981), "Working for Tips: An Examination of Trust and Reciprocity in a Secondary Relationship of the Restaurant Organization," The Sociological Quarterly, 22, 15-27.

Callan, Roger J. and Kirstie Tyson (2000). �Tipping Behavior in Hospitality Embodying a Comparative Prolegomenon of English and Italian Customers.� Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2(3), 242-261.

Carlson, Katherine (1977), "Reciprocity in the Marketplace: Tipping in an Urban Nightclub," in James Spradley and David McCurdy (Eds.) Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology, Third Edition, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, pp. 337-347.

Casey, Brigid (2001), �Tipping in New Zealand�s Restaurants,� Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, (February), 21-25.

Casey, Brigid (2001), �Tipping in New Zealand Restaurants,� International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20, 219-225.

Chang, Jui Chi (2006). �Customer Satisfaction with Tour Leaders� Performance: A Study of Taiwan�s Package Tours,� Asian Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 11(1), 97-116.

Chapman, Gretchen and Jennifer Winquist (1998). "The Magnitude Effect: Temporal Discount Rates and Restaurant Tips," Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5 (1), 119-123.

Chiang, Flora F.T. and Thomas A. Birtch (2008), �Achieving Task and extra-task-related behaviors: A Case of Gender and Position Differences in the Perceived Role of Rewards in the Hotel Industry,� International Journal of Hospitality Management, in press.

Cho, Minho (2005), �A Re-Examination of Cultural Influences on restaurant Tipping Behavior: A Comparison of Japan and the U.S.Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 8(1), 79-96.

Chung, Manson K.H. and Vincent C.S. Heung (2007). �Tipping Behavior of Diners in Three Upscale Chinese Restaurants in Hong Kong,� Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 12 (3), 169-180.

Condon, Christopher (2004). �Hungarian government confronts �tipping� practices. The Lancet, 363, 1776-1777.

Conlin, Michael, Michael Lynn and Ted O'Donahue (2003), "The Norm of Restaurant Tipping," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 52, 297-321.

Crespi, Leo P. (1947), �The Implications of Tipping in America,� Public Opinion Quarterly, 11 (Fall), 424-435.

Crick, A. (1991), �The Influence Of The Tip System In The Hospitality Industry: A Pilot Study,� Caribbean Finance and Management, 7 (1&2), 19-30.

Crowson, Christopher A. (2002-2003), �Service with a Chagrin: The Problem of Aggregate Estimates of Unreported Tips in United States v. FiorD�Italia, Inc,� Campbell Law Review, 25, 93-114.

Crusco, April H. and Christopher G. Wetzel (1984), �The Midas Touch:The Effects of Interpersonal Touch on Restaurant Tipping,� Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10 (December), 512-517.

Cunningham, Michael R. (1979), �Weather, Mood and Helping Behavior: Quasi Experiments with the Sunshine Samaritan,� Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (November), 1947-1956.

Dalakas, Vassilis (2006). �The Importance of Good Ending in a Service Encounter,� Services Marketing Quarterly, 28 (1), 35-53.

Davis, Stephen F., Brian Schrader, Tori R. Richardson, Jason P. Kring and Jaime C. Kiefer (1998), �Restaurant Servers Influence Tipping Behavior,� Psychological Reports, 83, 223-226.

Dermody, Margot, Marilyn Young, and Susan Lee Taylor (2004), �Identifying Job Motivation Factors of Restaurant Servers...,� International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 5 (3), 1-14.

DeVolo, Lorraine Bayard (2003), �Service and Serveillance: Infrapolitics at Work among Casino Cocktail Waitresses,� Social Politics, 10 (3), 346-376.

Dewald, Ben (2003), "Tipping in Hong Kong Restaurants," International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22, 307-319.

Dewald, Ben (2000), "Tipping by Foreign Tourists," Pacific Tourism Review, 5, 43-50.

Dewald, Ben (2001), �Restaurant Tipping by Tourists in Hong Kong,� Anatolia, 12(2), 139-152.

Dirks, Danielle and Stephen Rice (2004), ��Dining While Black�: Tipping as Social Artifact,� Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 45 (February) 30-47.

Dombrowski, PJ, Karthik Namasivayam, and Bart Bartlett (2006), �Antecedants of Tips and Servers� Ability to Predict Tips in a Restaurant Setting.� Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 9(1),��� .

Drew, Jennifer, John Stoeckle and Andrew Billings (1983), �Tips, Status and Sacrifice: Gift Giving in the Doctor-Patient Relationship," Social Science Medicine, 17 (7), 399-404.

Economic Development Committee for the Hotel and Catering Industry (1970), Why Tipping?, National Economic Development Office, London.

Eddleston, Kimberly, Deborah Kidder and Barrie Litzky (2002), �Who�s the Boss? Contending with Competing Expectations from Customers and Management,� Academy of Management Executive, 16(4), 85-95.

Elman, D. (1976), �Why is Tipping �Cheaper by the Bunch�: Diffusion or Just Desserts?,� Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1, 584-587.

Erickson, Jennifer M. (2003). �Fior D�Italia: The �Taxing� Problem of Unreported Tip Income,� Iowa Law Review, 88, 655-679.

Evans, Michael and Dinesh Dave (1999), " The Thorny Question of Automatic Service Charges," Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 40(4), 78-83.

Faber, Suzanne (1982), �Social Class, Tipping and Alcohol Consumption in an Ann Arbor Cocktail Lounge,� in C.P. Kottak (ed.), Researching American Culture, Ann Arbor:The University of Michigan Press, 157-162.

Feinberg, Richard A. (1986), �Credit Cards as Spending Facilitating Stimuli:A Conditioning Interpretation,� Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (December), 348-356.

Fitzsimmons, James A. and Gavin B. Maurer (1991), �A Walk-Through Audit to Improve Restaurant Performance,� Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, (February), 95-99.

Foster, George M. (1972), �The Anatomy of Envy:A Study of Symbolic Behavior,� Current Anthropology, 13, 165-186.

Frank, Robert H. (1988), Passions Within Reason, New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Frank, Robert H. (1987), �If HomoEconomicus Could Choose His Own Utility Function, Would He Want One With a Conscience?,� American Economic Review, 77 (September), 593-604.

Franklin, Christine Ladd and Josiah Royce (1891), �The Moral Aspect of �Tips� and �Gratuities.�� International Journal of Ethics, 1 (4), 494-501.

Freeman, Stephen, Markus R. Walker, Richard Borden, and Bibb Latane (1975), �Diffusion of Responsibility and Restaurant Tipping:Cheaper by the Bunch,� Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 1 (Fall), 584-587.

Gaal, Peter and Martin McKee (2005), �Fee-for-Service or Donation? Hungarian Perspectives on Informal Payment for Health Care, Social Science and Medicine, 60, 1145-1457.

Garrity, Kimberly and Douglas Degelman (1990), �Effect of Server Introduction on Restaurant Tipping,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20 (February), 168-172.

Green, Leonard, Joel Myerson and Rachel Schneider (2003), �Is There a Magnitude Effect in Tipping?,� Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10 (2), 381-386.

Gueguen, Nicholas and Patrick Legoherel (2000). "Effect on Tipping of Barman Drawing a Sun on the Bottom of Customers' Checks," Psychological Reports, 87, 223-226.

Gueguen, Nicholas (2002), "The Effects of a Joke on Tipping When it is Delivered at the Same Time as the Bill," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 1955-1963.

Gueguen, Nicholas (2007). �The Effect of Modeling on Tipping Behavior,� Studia Psychologica, 49 (3), 275-281.

Gueguen, Nicholas and Celine Jacob (2005), �The Effect of Touch on Tipping: An Evaluation in a French Bar,� International Journal of Hospitality Management, 24, 295-299.

Harris, Mary B. (1995), �Waiters, Customers and Service:Some Tips About Tipping,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(8), 725-744.

Haysbert, Clorice (2002), �The Effects of Race, Education and Income: Effects on Tipping Behavior,� Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 5(2), 47-60.

Hemenway, David (1984), Prices and Choices:Microeconomic Vignettes, Cambridge, MA:Ballinger.

Hill, Donna and Maryon King (1993), �An Exploratory Investigation Into Consumer Knowledge of Tipping Etiquette: Accuracy, Antecendants and Consequences,� Proceedings of the Symposium on Patronage Behavior and Retail Strategy: Cutting Edge III, Willam Darden and Robert Lusch (Eds.), Louisiana State University: 121-135.

Holloway, J. Christopher (1981), �The Guided Tour: A Sociological Approach,� Annals of Tourism Research, 8, 377-402.

Holloway, J. Christopher (1985), �Between Gratitude and Gratuity: Commentary on Shamir,� Annals of Tourism Research, 12, 239-242.

Hornik, Jacob (1992), �Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response,� Journal of Consumer Research, 19 (December), 449-458.

Hsieh, An-Tien and Der-Huang Wu (2007). �The relationship between Timing of Tipping and Service Effort,� Service Industries Journal, 27(1), 1-14.

Huang, Jen-Hung, Shu-Hsun Ho, and Bruce C.Y. Lee (2003), �Who are the Adorable Customers � men or women? TQM & Business Excellence, 14 (7), 789-800.

Hubbard, Amy S. Ebesu, Allen Tsuji, Christine Williams, and Virgilio Seatriz, Jr. (2003). �Effects of Touch on Gratuities Received in Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Dyads,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 2427-2438.

Huyton, Jeremy R. and Anthony Ingold (1997), �Some Considerations of Impacts of Attitudes to Foreigners by Hotel Workers in the Peoples republic of China on Hospitality Service,� Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 3, 107-117.

Ineson, Elizabeth and Adrian Martin (1999), "Factors Influencing the Tipping Propensity of Restaurant Customers," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 6, 27-37.

I.R.S. (1990), Tip Income Study, Department of the Treasury, Publication 1530 (8-90), catalog Number 12482K.

Israeli, Aviad and Rachel Barkan (2004), �Developing a Framework for Rewards in Combined Production/Service Businesses: The Case of Tipping in the Restaurant Industry,�International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15 (5), 444-459.

Jacob, Nancy and Alfred Page (1980), �Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organization: The Buyer Monitoring Case,� American Economic Review, 70 (June), 476-478.

Johnson, Keith and Rosemary Lucas (2002), �Student Employment within Services: A UK, Central and eastern European Perspective,� Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 10 (1), 53-67.

Karen, Robert (1962), �Some Factors Affecting Tipping,� Sociology and Social Research, 47 (October), 68-74.

Kelleher, Richard M. (1976), �The Impact of Tip Credit Repeal,� Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, 17 (1), 10-14.

Kenny, Courtney (1916), �Jhering on Trinkgeld and Tips,� The Law Quarterly Review, No. CXXVII, 306-321.

Kerr, Peter M., Bruce R. Domazlicky, Adam P. Kerr, Joseph R. Knittel. (2006) �An Objective Measure of Service and Its Effect on Tipping,� Journal of Economics, 32 (2), 61-69.

Kerr, Peter M. and Bruce R. Domazlicky (2008), �Tipping and Service Quality: Results from a Large Database,� Applied Economics Letters, forthcoming.

Kim, Ju-Young, Martin Natter and Martin Spann (2008), �Pay-What-You-Want: A New Participative Pricing Mechanism,� Journal of Marketing, in press.

Kim, Seong-Seop, Bruce Prideauz and Sung-Hyuk Kim (2002), �A Cross-cultural Study on Casino Guests as Perceived by Casino Employees,� Tourism Management, 23, 511-520.

Koc, Erdogan (2006), � Total Quality Management and Business Excellence in Services: The implications of All-Inclusive Pricing System on Internal and External Customer Satisfaction in the Turkish Tourism Market,� Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 17 (7), 857-877.

Koku, Paul Sergius (2005), �Is There a Difference in Tipping in Restaurant versus Non-Restaurant Service Encounters, and Do Ethnicity and Gender Matter? Journal of Services Marketing, 19 (7), 445-452.

Koku, Paul Sergius (2007). �Some Significant Factors That Influence Tipping in Service Encounters Outside the Restaurant Industry in the United States,� Services Marketing Quarterly, 29 (1), 23-45.

Kovacic, Karen (2001). �Between L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E and Lyric: The Poetry of Pink Collar Resistance.� NWSA Journal 13 (1), 22-39.

Kunzli, N., P. Mazzoletti, M. Adam, T. Gotschi, P. Mathys, C. Monn and O. Brandli (2003), �Smoke-free Cafe in an Unregulated European City: Highly Welcomed and Economically Successful,�Tobacco Control, 12, 282-288.

Kushner, Roland J. and Arthur C. Brooks (2000), �The One-Man Band by the Quick Lunch Stand: Modeling Audience Response to Street Performance,� Journal of Cultural Economics, 24, 65-77.

Laesser, Christian and Mike Peters (2005). �Does Personal Interaction Quality Really Pay? On the Influence of Personal Interaction Quality on Willingness to Pay.� Tourism Analysis, 10, 123-135.

Leodoro, Gina and Michael Lynn (forthcoming), �The Effects of Server Posture on the Tips of Whites and Blacks,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology.

Levmore, Saul (2000). "Norms as Supplements," Virginia Law Review, Vol. 86, 1989.

Liang, Lan, Frank A Sloan, and Emily M Stout (2004), �Precaution, Compensation,a nd Threats of Sanction: The case of Alcohol Servers,� International Review of Law and Economics, 24, 49-70.

Lin, Tin-Chun (2007), �Economic Behavior of Restaurant Tipping,� Economics Bulletin, 4 (2), 1-10.

Liu, Chu-Mei (2008), �The Perceptions of waiters and Customers on Restaurant Tipping,� Journal of Services Marketing, 22 (2), 95-103.

Lynn, Michael (1988), �The Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Restaurant Tipping,� Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14 (March), 87-91.

Lynn, Michael (1994), �Neuroticism and the Prevalence of Tipping: A Cross-Country Study,� Personality and Individual Differences, 17(1), 137-138.

Lynn, Michael (1996), �Seven Ways to Increase Server�s Tips,� Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, (June), 24-29.

Lynn, Michael (1997), �Tipping Customs and Status Seeking: A Cross-Country Study,� International Journal of Hospitality Management, 16(2), 221-224.

Lynn, Michael (2000), "National Personality and Tipping Customs," Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 395-404.

Lynn, Michael (2000), "National Character and Tipping Customs: The Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power as Predictors of the Prevalence of Tipping," International Journal of Hospitality Management, 19, 205-210.

Lynn, Michael (2000), "The Relationship Between Tipping and Service Quality: A Comment on Bodvarsson and Gibson's Article," The Social Science Journal, 37, 131-135.

Lynn, Michael (2001), �Restaurant Tipping and Service Quality: A Tenuous Relationship,� Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, (January), 14-20.

Lynn, Michael (2002), "Turnover�s Relationship with Sales, Tips and Service Across Restaurants in a Chain," International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21, 443-447.

Lynn, Michael (2003), �Restaurant Tips and Service Quality: A Weak Relationship or Just Weak Measurement?,� International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22, 321-325.

Lynn, Michael (2003), �Tip Levels and Service: An Update, Extension and Reconciliation,� Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, 42 (December), 139-148.

Lynn, Michael (2004), "Black-White Differences in Tipping of Various Service Providers," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34 (11), 2261-2271.

Lynn, Michael (2004), �Ethnic Differences in Tipping: A Matter of Familiarity with Tipping Norms,� Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, 45, 12-22.

Lynn, Michael (2004), �Restaurant Tips and Service Quality: A Commentary on Bodvarsson, Luksetich and McDermott (2003), Applied Economics Letters, 11, 975-978.

Lynn, Michael (2005), Tipping.� In Abraham Pizam (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of Hospitality Management, New York: Elsevier, 620-621.

Lynn, Michael (2006), �Tipping in restaurants and Around the Globe: An Interdisciplinary Review.� Ch. 31, pp. 626-643. In Morris Altman (Ed.) Handbook of Contemporary Behavioral Economics: Foundations and Developments, M.E. Sharpe Publishers. Available online at <http://ssrn.com/abstract=465942>.

Lynn, Michael (2005). Increasing Servers� Tips: What Managers Can Do and Why They Should Do It. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 8(4), 89-98.

Lynn, Michael (2006). �Geo-Demographic Differences in Knowledge about the Restaurant Tipping Norm,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36 (3), 740-750.

Lynn, Michael (2006). Race Differences in Restaurant Tipping: A Literature Review and Discussion of Practical Implications,� Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 9 (4), 99-113.

Lynn, Michael (2008). Personality Effects on Tipping Attitudes, Self-Reported Behaviors and Customs: A Multi-Level Inquiry, Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 989-999.

Lynn, Michael (2008). �Determinants and Consequences of Female Attractiveness and Sexiness: Realistic Tests with Restaurant Waitresses,� Archives of Sexual Behavior, forthcoming.

Lynn, Michael and Charles Bond (1992), "Conceptual Meaning and Spuriousness in Ratio Correlations: The Case of Restaurant Tipping," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(4), 327-341.

Lynn, Michael and Andrea Grassman (1990), �Restaurant Tipping:An Examination of Three �Rational Explanations�,� Journal of Economic Psychology, 11 (June), 169-181.

Lynn, Michael and Jeffrey Graves (1996), �Tipping: An Incentive/Reward for Service?,� Hospitality Research Journal, 20(1), 1-14.

Lynn, Michael and Robert Gregor (2001), "Tipping and Service: The Case of Hotel Bellmen," International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20, 299-303.

Lynn, Michael and Bibb Latane (1984), �The Psychology of Restaurant Tipping,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14 (November/December), 551-563.

Lynn, Michael and Ann Lynn (2004), �National values and tipping customs:A replication and extension,� Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 28 (3), 356-364.

Lynn, Michael and Michael McCall (2000), "Gratitude and Gratuity: A Meta-Analysis of Research on the Service-Tipping Relationship," Journal of Socio-Economics, 29, 203-214.

Lynn, Michael, Joseph-Mykal, and David S. Sherwyn (1998), �Reach Out and Touch Your Customers,� Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, 39 (June), 60-65.

Lynn, Michael and Kirby Mynier (1993), �Effect of Server Posture on Restaurant Tipping,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23(8), 678-685.

Lynn, Michael and Tony Simons (2000), �Predictors of Male and Female Servers� Average Tip Earnings,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 241-252.

Lynn, Michael and Michael Sturman (2003), "It's Simpler Than it Seems: An Alternative Explanation for the Magnitude Effect in Tipping," International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22, 103-110.

Lynn, Michael, et. al. (2008). �Consumer Racial Discrimination in Tipping: A Replication and Extension,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, forthcoming.

Lynn, Michael and Clorice Thomas Haysbert (2003), �Ethnic Differences in Tipping: Evidence, Explanations and Implications,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 1747-1772.

Lynn, Michael and Glenn Withiam (2008). �Tipping and Its Alternatives: Business Considerations and Directions for Research,� Journal of Services Marketing, forthcoming.

Lynn, Michael, George M. Zinkhan and Judy Harris (1993), �Consumer Tipping: A Cross-Country Study,� Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (December), 478-485.

Macnaugton, Alan and Michael Veall (2001), "Tipping and the McQuatters Formula," Public Finance Review, 29(2), 99-107.

Mallinson, Christine and Zachary W. Brewster (2005). ��Blacks and Bubbas�: Stereotypes, Ideology and Categorization Processes in Restaurant Servers� Discourse.� Discourse and Society, 16(6), 787-807.

Manzur, Luzand Giri Jogaratnam (2006), �Impression Management and the Hospitality Service Encounter: Cross-Cultural Differences,� Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 20 (3/4), 21-32.

Mattila, Anna S. (2006), �The Power of Explanations in Mitigating the Ill-Effects of Service Failures,� Journal of Services Marketing, 20 (6/7), 422-428.

May, Joanne M. (1980), �Looking for Tips:An Empirical Perspective on Restaurant Tipping,� Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, (February), 6-13.

McCall, Michael and Heather J. Belmont (1996), �Credit Card Insignia and Restaurant Tipping:Evidence for an Associative Link,� Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(5), 609-613.

Mccall, Michael, Jessica Trombetta and Aimee Gipe (2004), �Credit Cues and Impression Management: A Preliminary Attempt to Explain the Credit Card Effect,� Psychological Reports, 95, 331-337.

McCarty, John A., L.J. Shrum, Tracey E. Conrad-Katz, and Zacho Kane (1990), �Tipping as Consumer Behavior:A Qualitative Investigation,� Advances in Consumer Research, Marvin E. Goldberg et.al. (ed.), Provo UT:Association for Consumer Research, 17, 723-728.

McCrohan, Kevin and Robert B. Pearl (1984), "Estimates of Tip Income in Eating Places, 1982," Statistics of Income Bulletin, 3(3), 49-53.

McCrohan, Kevin and Robert Pearl (1991), �An Application of Commercial Panel Data for Public Policy Research: Estimates of Tip Earnings,� Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, 17, 217-231.

Miller, Geoffrey, Joshua M. Tybur, and Brent D. Jordan (2007). �Ovulatory Cycle Effects on Tip Earnings by Lap Dancers: Economic Evidence for Human Estrus?,� Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 375-381.

Mills, Susan and Hudson Riehle (1987), "What Customers Think About Tips vs Service Charges," Restaurants USA, (October), 20-22.

Mok, Connie and Sebastian Hansen (1999), "A Study of Factors Affecting Tip Size in Restaurants," Journal of Restaurant and Foodservice Marketing, 3(3/4), 49-64.

Needleman, Rae L. (1937), �Tipping as a Factor in Wages,� Monthly Labor Review, December, 1303-1322.

Newman Joel (1988), "Waiter, There's an IRS Agent in My Soup," Tax Notes, (August 22), 861-868.

Noll, Emily and Susan Arnold (2004), �Racial Differences in Tipping: Evidence from the Field,� Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 45 (February), 23-29.

Ogbonna, Emmanuel and Lloyd C. Harris (2002), �Institutionalization of Tipping as a Source of Managerial Control,� British Journal of Industrial Relations, 40, 725-752.

O�Neal, Martin, John Salazar, Susan Hubbard and William Kent (2000), �The Impact of Tipping on Job Satisfaction of Restaurant Servers: A Cross-cultural Study,� Australian Journal of Hospitality Management, 7(2), 51-54.

Parrett, Matt (2006), �An Analysis of the Determinants of Tipping Behavior: A Laboratory Experiment and Evidence from Restaurant Tipping.� Southern Economic Journal, 73(2), 489-514.

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Rind, Bruce and Prashant Bordia (1995), �Effect of Server�s �Thank You� and Personalization on Restaurant Tipping,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(9), 745-751.

Rind, Bruce and Prashant Bordia (1996), �Effect on Restaurant Tipping of Male and Female Servers Drawing a Happy, Smiling Face on the Backs of Customers� Checks,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26(3), 218-225.

Rind, Bruce and David Strohmetz (1998), �Effect on Restaurant Tipping of a Helpful Message Written on the Back of Customers� Checks,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 139-144.

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Rind, Bruce and David Strohmetz (2001), �Effect on Restaurant Tipping of Presenting Customers with an Interesting Task and of Reciprocity,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 1379-1384.

Rogelberg, Steven G., Robert Ployhart, William Balzer and Robert Yonker (1999), "Using Policy Capturing to Examine Tipping Decisions," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29(12), 2567-2590.

Roper (2002), �Here�s a Tip,� Public Perspective, (November/December), 52.

Ruffle, Bradley J. (1999), "Gift Giving with Emotions," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 39, 399-420.

Sallaz, Jeffrey J. (2002). The House Rules: Autonomy and Interests Among Service Workers in the Contemporary Casino Industry,� Work and Occupations, 29(4), 394-427.

Sanchez, Alfonso (2002), �The Effect of Alcohol Consumption and Patronage Frequency on Restaurant Tipping,� Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 5(3), 19-36.

Schein, John E., Edwin F. Jablonski and Barbara R. Wohlfahrt (1984), The Art of Tipping: Customs and Controvesies, Wausau, WI: Tippers International.

Schlicht, Ekkehart (1998), On Custom in the Economy, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Schmidgall, Raymond and John Tarras (1988), "Tips Allocation: A Hotel Compliance Study," Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 28(3), 58-61.

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Schotter, Andrew (200), �Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection: Informational Market Failures,� in MicroEconomics: A Modern Approach, 3rd Edition, Addison-Wesley.

Schwartz, Zvi (1997), "The Economics of Tipping: Tips, Profits and the Market's Demand-Supply Equilibrium," Tourism Economics, 3(3), 265-279.

Schwartz, Zvi and Eli Cohen (2000), �Tipping and the nation�s tax Burden: A Cross-country Study,� Anatolia, an International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(2), 135-147.

Schwer, R. Keith and Rennae Daneshvary (2000), "Tipping Participation and Expenditures in Beauty Salons," Applied Economics, 32, 2023-2031.

Scott, William R. (1916), The Itching Palm: A Study of the Habit of Tipping in America, Philadelphia:Penn.

Seagrave, Kerry (1998), Tipping:An American History of Gratuities, Jefferson, NC:McFarland & Company.

Seiter, John S. (2007), �Ingratiation and Gratuity: The Effect of Complimenting Customers on Tipping Behavior in Restaurants,� Journal ofApplied Social Psychology, 37 (3), 478-485.

Seiter, John S. and Eric Dutson (2007). �The Effect of Compliments on Tipping Behavior in Hairstyling Salons,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37 (9), 1999-2007.

Seiter, John, S. and Robert H. Gass (2005), �The Effect of Patriotic Messages on Restaurant Tipping,� Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35 (6), 1197-1205.

Seligman, Clive, Jean E. Finegan, J. Douglas Hazelwood, and Mark Wilkinson (1985), �Manipulating Attributions for Profit:A Field Test of the Effects of Attributions on Behavior,� Social Cognition, 3 (Fall), 313-321.

Shamir, Boas (1983), "A Note on Tipping and Employee Perceptions and Attitudes," Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56, 255-259.

Shamir, Boas (1984), �Between Gratitude and Gratuity: An Analysis of Tipping,� Annals of Tourism Research, 11, 59-78.

Sheldon, Kennon, Tim Kasser, LInda Houser-Marko, Tashia Jones and Daniel Turban (2005), �Doing One�s Duty: Chronological Age, Felt Autonomy, and Subjective Well-being. European Journal of Personality, 19 (2), 97-115.

Simpson, Hilery (1997), �Tips and Excluded Wokers: The New Orleans Test.� Compensation and Working Conditions (summer), Bureau of Labor Statistics, pp. 32-36.

Sizoo, Steve (2006), �A Comparison of the Effect of Intercultural Sensitivity on Employee Performance in Cross-Cultural Service Encounters: London vs. Florida,� Journal of Euromarketing, 15 (4), 77-100.

Sizoo, Steve (2008), �Analysis of Employee Performance during Cross-cultural Service Encounters at Luxury Hotels in Hawaii, London and Florida,� Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 13 (2), 113-128.

Sizoo, Steve, Richard Plank. Wilfried Iskat, and Hnedrick Serrie (2005), �The Effect of Intercultural Sensitivity on Employee Performance in Cross-Cultural Service Encounters,� Journal of Services Marketing, 19(4), 245-255.

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Stephen, Renee and Richard L. Zweigenhaft (1986), �The Effect on Tipping of a Waitress Touching Male and Female Customers,� Journal of Social Psychology, 126 (February), 141-142.

Stillman, JeriJane W. and Wayne E. Hensley (1980), �She Wore a Flower in Her Hair:The Effect of Ornamentation on Non-verbal Communication,� Journal of Applied Communication Research, 1, 31-39.

Strohmetz, David B. and Bruce Rind (2001), �The Impact of Tipping Recommendations on Tip Levels,� Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, 42(3), 71-73.

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UNPUBLISHED PAPERS

 

Alison, Jay M. (1995), �Tipping Your Server: Better with Cash or Credit?,� student paper, Missouri Western State College.

Anderson, John and Orn Bodvarsson (2003), �Tax Evasion on Gratuities: A Model and Test,� paper presented at the 44th annual conference of the Western Social Science Association in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Anderson, John and Orn Bodvarsson (2002), �An Empirical Analysis of State Tip Credit Laws,� paper presented at the 77th annual conference of Western Economic Association International in Seattle, WA.

Ardoin, Jessie, Hannah Ardoin and Jacquelyn Briscoe (2007). �Consumer Tipping Behavior,� Unpublished manuscript, McNeese State University.

Azar, Ofer H. (2001), �The Implications of Tipping for Restaurant Management,� Working paper, Dept. of Economics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201.

Azar, Ofer H. (2001), �Can Tips Replace Monitoring by the firm?� Working paper, Dept. of Economics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201.

Azar, Ofer H. (2002), "The Economics of Tipping." Working paper, Dept. of Economics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60201.

Azar, Ofer H. (2005), �Tipping Motivations and Behavior in the US and Israel: Results of an Experimental Survey,� Working paper, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

Azar, Ofer H. and Yossi Tobol (2005), �Tipping as an Investment in Service Quality,� Working paper, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

Barnes, Hellen (2003), �Gender Differences in Restaurant Tipping,� Masters Thesis, Dept. of Sociology, University of Oxford.

Baron, James N. (1992), "The Normative Bases of Economic Transactions: The Case of Tipping." Working paper, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

Barrera, Dinah Leah (2003). �The Effects of Touch, Stamps, and Written Messages on Food Service Patrons� Tipping Behavior,� unpublished Masters Thesis, Dept. of Speech Communication, California State University, Fullerton.

Baudendistal, Steven (2000), �The Perception of Power, Wealth and Tipping Styles,� Unpublished student paper submitted to John Krantz, Hanover College.

Baun, Charly (1992), �The Economics of Tipping at Waldo�s Pizza,� student paper submitted to Orn Bodvarsson, Dept. of Economics, St. Cloud State University.

Beckman, Megan (2002), �Factors Affecting Tip Percentages,� Unpublished student paper submitted to Dr. Richard Miller, University of Nebraska at Kearney.

Benjamin, Daniel J. (2008), �Social Preferences and the Efficiency of Bilateral Exchange,� unpublished manuscript, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Ben-Zion, Uri and Edi Karni (1976), "Tip Payments and the Quality of Service," in O.C. Ashenfelter & W.E. Oates,(Eds.), Working Paper No. 30-76, The Foerder Institute of Economic Research, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.

Bodvarsson, Orn B. (1990), �Tax Evasion of Tip Income and the �TEFRA� Legislation,� working paper, Dept. of Economics, St. Cloud State University.

Bodvarsson, Orn B. and William A. Gibson (1988), �Towards an Economic Theory of Tipping,� working paper, Dept. of Economics, St. Cloud State University.

Bohrer, David and DeLisa Walker (1997), �Effects of Written Gratitude on Restaurant Tipping,� paper presented at the 18th Annual Industrial Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior Graduate Student Conference, Radford University, March 17-9.

Brewster, Zachary W. and Christine Mallinson (2005), �Racial Differences in restaurant Tipping: A Labor Process Perspective,� Unpublished manuscript, Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Brown, Keith R. (2002), "Factors Affecting Tip Size: An Analysis of Class, Gender and Race in the Tipping of Delivery Drivers," Unpublished Master's Thesis, Dept. of Sociology, University of Massahusetts Amherst.

Brown, Keith (2004), �Theories Behind the Exchange: Tipping and the Treatment of Service Workers,� Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Sociological Society, NYC, February 2004.

Brown, Wendy, Angela Devould, Tracey Keel and Sarah Moore (2002), �The Effects of Touching on Tipping in a Restaurant Setting,� Unpublished student paper, Christain Brothers University.

Bueker, Anna (2002), �The Service Industry: An Ethnographic Study of the Bier Garden and the Influences Concerning Server and Customer Experience,� Unpublished student paper submitted to Dr. Siti Kusujiarti, Warren Wilson College, Asheville, NC.

Cate, Sandra Louise (1991), �Counter Intelligence: The Popular History and Contemporary Practice of Tipping in the United States,� unpublished masters thesis, University of California at Berkeley.

Caudill, Donald (2003), �Restaurant Servers� Viewpoints Toward Consumers� Tipping Behavior: An Empirical Analysis,� Unpublished manuscript, Bluefield State College, West Virginia.

Choi, Songhee (2003), �The Impact of Gratuity Policies on the Job Satisfaction of Restaurant Servers: Tip vs. Service Charge.� Unpublished Masters Thesis, School of Hospitality Management, Florida International University.

Christensen, Joseph Nelson, (2001), �Analysis of Casino Table Game Tipping by Comdex Conventioneers,� Unpublished dissertation, University of NevadaLas Vegas.

Clarke, Paul (2005), �Tipping at Restaurants,� Unpublished results of a InstaPoll, Sandelman and Associates.

Cook, Dianne, Deborah Swayne and Andreas Buja (2006). Chapter 1: Introduction. Interactive and Dynamic Graphics for Data Analysis, pp. 4-8. Unpublished manuscript, Iowa State University.

Dewald, Ben (2000), "A Comparative Study of Tipping in Western and Chinese Restaurants," unpublished manuscript, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

Dickey, K. and Travis Langley (1995), �Effects of Modeling Upon Tipping Behavior,� Paper presented at the annual Arkansas Undergraduate Research Conference, Arkadelphia, Arkansas.

Diggins, Emily D. and Susan E. Arnold (2000), �Racial Differences in Restaurant Tipping: Servers� Perceptions and Customers� Tipping Behaviors,� Unpublished manuscript, University of North Florida.

Dombrowski, PJ (2003), Antecedants of Tipping and Servers� Ability to Predict Tips,� Unpublished bachelors� honors thesis, Pennsylvania State University.

Drago, Carleen (2007). �Nonverbal Communication and Restaurant Personnel,� unpublished Masters Thesis, Oregon State University.

Drolet, Aimee L. and Brian Gibbs (2000), �Empathy and the Predisposition to be Satisfied,� working paper, Dept. of Marketing, UCLA.

Economic Development Committee for the Hotel and Catering Industry (1970), Why Tipping?, National Economic Development Office, London.

Edelman, Benjamin (2004), �Earnings and Ratings at Google Answers,� Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University, Boston, MA.

Estreicher, Samuel and Jonathan Nash (2004), �The Law and Economics of Tipping: The Laborer�s Perspective.� American Law & Economics Association Annual Meetings, paper 54. Available online at <http://law.bepress.com/alea/14th/art54>.

Farnham, Patti (2002), �Gratuity Ingenuity: The Secret Art of Bigger Tips,� web book available at <http://www.gratuityingenuity.com/>.

Flath, D. (2004). �Why Do We Tip Taxicab Drivers?� Unpublished manuscript, Dept. of economics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8110.

Fong, Shu Fung (2005). The Socio-Economic Motives Underlying Tipping Behavior. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Department of Economics, University of Saskatchewan.

Forrest, Laura (2008), �Tipping: The Stiff Rate and Cash Differential: A Literature Search,� Report to IRS by SB/SE Research, Detroit/Milwaukee.

Fox, Lane (2006). Secrets of the Superstar Server: Five top Servers Interviewed. Unpublished manuscript available online at www.ImproveTips.com.

Frederick/Schneiders (1992). �Survey of Service Employees.� Unpublished survey report, Frederick/Schneiders Inc., Washington DC.

Gambetta, Diego (2006). �What Makes People Tip? Motivations and Predictions,� Sociology Working Papers #2006-09, University of Oxford.

Ganley, Christie, Elizabeth Adams, Mathew Douglas and Jessica McNeil (2003), �The Effects of Server�s Ethnicity and Customer�s Ethnicity on Tipping,� unpublished student research paper, Dept. of Psychology, Mississippi College.

Gardiner, Pamela (2001), "Opportunities Exist to Improve the Tip Rate Determination and Education Program," Department of Treasury report, Reference Number: 2001-30-076. Available at <http:treas.gov/tigta/2001reports/2001130076fr.html>.

Ghoneim, Dima, Fatima Al-Khatib, Donelda S. McKechnie, Jim Grant, and Dean Allmon (2004), �The Tipping Behavior of national and expatriate Consumers in the UAE,� unpublished working paper, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE.

Graves, Heidi (1993), �Tipping of Pull-Tab Selers in Bars,� student paper submitted to Orn Bodvarsson, Dept. of Economics, St. Cloud State University.

Guegen, Nicolas (2003), �The Effect of Modeling on Tipping Behavior,� unpublished manuscript, Universite de Bretagne-Sud, Vannes-France.

Gung, Emily (2004), �Tipping in America: An Analysis of the Minimum Wage Guidelines for �Tipped Employees�,� unpublished student paper, unknown university.

Hapgood, Fred (2000), "Why Voluntary payments,� presentation to the Digital Commerce Society of Boston, Sept. 5th. Available at <http://tipster.weblogs.com/hapgood>.

Harke, Rachel and Rand Ziegler (2004), �The Effects of Servers� Personalization and Reciprocity on Restaurant Tipping,� Paper presented at the 50th Annual Convention of the Southwestern Psychological Association. Retrieved December 2, 2004 from the World Wide Web: https://www.swpsych.org/programs.heitml?ref=976&year=2004.

Harris, Tony Andrew (1978), �A Field Study of Group Tipping Behavior: Equity versus Diffusion of Responsibility,� Unpublished masters thesis, Austin Peay State University.

Ho, May Lynn (2005), Reciprocity: The Case of Restaurant Tipping/Evidence from a Field Experiment, Unpublished student paper, from unknown economics department in the UK.

Hoas, David and Lyndsay Bigler (2004), �The Relationship Between Tipping and Service Quality: The Other Side of the Equation,� Paper to be presented at the Southwestern Society of Economists Annual Meeting, March.

Karniouchina, Ekaterina, Himanshu Mishra and Rohit Verma (2008). �Exploring Consumer Reactions to Tipping Guidelines,� Cornell Hospitality report, 8 (8), April.

Kazemier, Brigt (2008), �The Measurement of the Non-Observed Economy in the Dutch National Accounts�, upublished manuscript found online at http://www.lex.unict.it/eurolabor/ricerca/dossier/dossier7/cap6/kazemier.pdf.

Kerr. Peter, Bruce Domazlicky, Adam Kerr, and Joseph Knittel (2004), �An Objective Measure of Service and Its Effect on Tipping,� Paper presented at the Missouri Valley Economics Association Meeting, Oct. 15.

Kilkelly, Kevin (1992), �An Economic Study on Restaurant Tipping,� student paper submitted to King Banaian, Dept. of Economics, St. Cloud State University.

Kovacs, Jennifer (2002), �The Waiting Game: Gender in the Service Industry,� Unpublished student paper, Agnes Scott College, Decatur, GA.

LaPointe, Elanor (1994), �Risky Pay: Waitresses� Accounts of the Wage-Tip System,� Unpublished manuscript, Dept. of Sociology, Monmouth College, West Long Branch, NJ 07764, Available from: Sociology Express, paper no. 94S30504.

Larwood, Laurie, Thomas A. Wright, Alyssa Rye, and Laura Gilman (2001), �Equity as Complex Exchange: Investigations of Tipped Employment,� working paper, University of Nevada, Reno.

Leung, Pui Chung (1982), �What are Some of the major Determinants Affecting Tipping Behavior in Restaurant?,� student paper turned in to George Zinkhan, University of Houston.

Lion, Martin (2003). �Variables that Influence the Amount of Tipping.� Unpublished Thesis supervised by Dr. Claus Ebster, Fachhochschul-Studiengang Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen, Schlo Esterhazy.

Lin, Tin-Chun (2005), �Economic Behavior of Restaurant Tipping: Theory and Implication,� Unpublished manuscript, Indiana University Northwest.

Lindekins, Sacha (2001), �Behavioral Outcomes Associated With Emotional Contagion: A Study of Restaurant Tipping Behavior,� Unpublished dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Lynn, Michael (2004), �The Determinants of Consumer Norms: A Re-examination of National Personality Effects on Tipping Customs,� Unpublished manuscript, School of Hotel Administration, Cornell University.

Lynn, M. (2006). Tipping and Its Alternatives: A Comparison of Voluntary Tipping, Service Charges and Service-Inclusive Pricing. CHR Report, Vol.6, No. 5, (May). Available online at http://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/research/chr/pubs/reports/.

 

Lynn, M. (2006). Tipping Quiz. CHR Tool. Available online at http://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/research/chr/pubs/tools/.

 

 

Lynn, M. (2006). Race Differences in Tipping: Questions and Answers for the Restaurant Industry. CHR Report, Vol. 6, No. 1 (January). Available online at http://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/research/chr/pubs/reports/.

 

 

Lynn, M. (2004). Increasing Servers� Tips: What Managers Can Do and Why They Should Do It. CHR Report, Vol. 4, No. 5 (April). Available online at http://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/research/chr/pubs/reports/.

 

 

Lynn, M. (2004). Mega Tips: Scientifically Tested Ways to Increase Your Tips. CHR Tool. Available online at http://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/research/chr/pubs/tools/.

 

Lynn, Michael, Christie Ganley, Elizabeth Adams, Mathew Douglas, and Jessica Mcneal (2004), �Does Seller Race Affect Consumer Behavior? Evidence for racial Discrimination among Restaurant Patrons,� Unpublished manuscript, School of Hotel Administration, Cornell University.

Lynn, Michael, Robert Kwortnik, and William Ross (2006), �A Theory of Consumer Agency: The Effects of Tipping Policy on Service in the Cruise Industry,� Unpublished manuscript, School of Hotel Administration, Cornell University.

Lynn, Michael and Ann Lynn (1987), �Frequency of Restaurant patronage and Compliance with the Fifteen Percent Tipping Norm,� Unpublished paper, Dept. of Psychology, Ohio State University.

Lynn, Michael and Michael McCall (2000), "Beyond Gratitude and Gratuity: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Predictors of Restaurant Tipping," working paper, School of Hotel Administration, Cornell University.

Lynn, Michael, Michael Sturman, Christie Ganley, Elizabeth Adams, Matthew Douglas and Jessica McNeal (2006), �Consumer Racial Discrimination in Tipping: A replication and Extension,� working paper, School of Hotel Administration, Cornell University.

Lynn, Michael and Shuo Wang (2006), �The Effect of Tipping and Other Ways of Compensating Employees on Perceived Restaurant Expensiveness,� working paper, School of Hotel Administration, Cornell University.

Lynn, Michael, George M. Zinkhan and Judy Harris (1992), �Consumer Tipping: An Introductory Review and a Cross-Country Study,� Working Paper Series (1992) � 250, College of Business Administration, University of Houston.

MacKenzie, Michael and Jo Snyder (2001), �The Minimum Wage and a �Tipping Wage�,� Unpublished report prepared for the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives-Manitoba. Available at <www.policyalternatives.ca/manitoba/minwagereport.html>.

Main, Debra (2001), �What is the Nature and Range of Tipping as Perceived by Taxi Drivers?,� student paper submitted to Martin Davies, Psychosocial Studies Programme, University of East Anglia, Norwich.

Malafi, Teresa N. (1990), �Exit, Voice, Loyalty and Neglect: A New Approach to Consumer Dissatisfaction,� paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA, August.

Marchand, Jon (2003), �Are You Being Served?: A Study of the Effects of a Light Physical Touch on Restaurant Patron Tipping Behavior. Student paper from University of Minnesota, Morris, MN.

Margalioth, Yoram (2006), �The case Against Tipping,� unpublished manuscript, Tel Aviv University Law School.

Marshall, J.D. (2007). �Be a TipTop Server!,� unpublished manuscript, available at http://www.tiptopserver.com.

Marshall, Sarah (2005), �Increase Tips: Give Me Money,� unpublished student paper, Missouri Western University.

May, Joanne M. (1978), �Tip or Treat: A Study of Factors Affecting Tipping Behavior,� unpublished master�s thesis, Loyola University, Chicago, IL.

McCrohan, Kevin and Robert B. Pearl (1984), "Tipping Practices of American Households: Consumer Based Estimates for 1979,� 1983 Program and Abstracts Joint Statistical Meetings, August 15-18 , Toronto Canada.

McQuade, Thomas J. (2000), �The Anatomy of Tipping,� working paper, New York University.

Miller, Brian (1997). �Effects of Tipping on Employee Commitment in the Hospitality Industry,� unpublished paper, Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Travel Administration, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

Miller, Brian (2007). �Compensating Methods and Organizational Commitment of Foodservice Employees,� unpublished manuscript.

Mueller, Christian (1993), �Study of Tipping Practices in Licensed Establishments in Ontario,� Technical report, Economics and Labour Market Research Policy Division, Ministry of Labour.

Nida, Stephen, Jeffrey Jackson and Bibb Latane (1980), �Tipping in Taxicabs,� paper presented at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, St. Louis, MO.

Olia, Mustafa N. (1991), �Restaurant Tipping,� student paper submitted to Richard Gleisner, Dept. of Economics, St. Cloud State University.

Paek, Doohyun David (2004), �Economics of Tipping in US Restaurants,� Unpublished student paper, Dept. of Economics, Suffolk University.

Pantelidis, Ioannis, Benjamin Livingstone (2005), �The Undervalued face of Tipping: Time for Change.� paper presented at the EuroCHRIE 2005 International Conference in Paris, October 26-28.

Papp, Tara, G. and Amy L. Burkhammer (2001), �An Investigation of Server Posture and Gender on Restaurant Tipping,� paper presented at the 22nd Annual Industrial Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior Graduate Student Conference, Pennsylvania State University, March 16-18.

Parrett, Matthew B. (2003), �The Give and Take on Restaurant Tipping,� Unpublished doctoral dissertation in Economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

Parrett, Matthew (2007), �Beauty and the Labor Market: Evidence from Restaurant Servers,� unpublished manuscript, Emory University.

Pearl, Robert B. (1984), �A Survey Approach to estimating the Tipping Practices of Consumers,� Special Report on Regression Analysis to the Internal Revenue Service under Contract TIR-82-21, Survey Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL.

Pearl, Robert B. (1985), �Tipping Practices of American Households:1984,� final report to the Internal Revenue Service under contract TIR 82-21, Survey Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL.

Pearl, Robert B. and John Vidmar(1988), �Tipping Practicves of American Households in Restaurants and Other eating Places: 1985-86,� Supplementary Report to the Internal Revenue Service under Contract TIR 86-279., Survey Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL.

Pollom, Amanda (2001), �Stereotyping in Restaurants,� Undergraduate Honors Thesis, Dept. of Psychology, University of Kansas.

Rafaeli, Sheizaf, Daphne R. Raban and Gilad Ravid (2005). �Social and Economic Incentives in Google Answers,� unpublished manuscript, University of Haifa.

Ramert, S. (2003), �Trinkgeld � Eine interdisziplinare Analyze, einem Kellner oder einer Kellnerin Trinkgeld zu geben.� German language abstract of a thesis/dissertation available online at <http://www.diplom.de/db/diplomarbeiten7486.pdf>.

Regner, Tobias (2004), �Why Voluntary Contributions? Google Answers!� Unpublished manuscript, University of Bristol. Available online at http://ssrn.com/abstract=670243.

Rodrigue, Karen M. (1999), �Tipping Tips:The Effects of Personalization on Restaurant Gratuity,� Master�s Thesis, Division of Psychology and Special Education, Emporia State University.

Rolle, Sophia Anne (1989), �Tipping Policies and Procedures in Iowa Restaurants,� Unpublished masters thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Roselande, Charles (2002), "The Effect of Service on Gratuity." Unpublished student paper posted at <http://clearinghouse.mwsc.edu>.

Rusche, Sarah (2003), �Unpredictable Br and Grille: Its Got Nothing to do with Food: An Exploratory Study of the Subculture of Restaurant Workers.� Masters thesis, Ohio University.

Schotter, Andrew (1979). �The Economics of Tipping and Gratuities: An Essay in Institution Micro-Economics.� New York University, C.V. Starr Center Working Paper # 79-19.

Seiter, John s. (2006), �Ingratiation and Gratuity: The Effect of Complimenting Customers on Tipping Behavior in Restaurants,� unpublished manuscript, Dept. of Languages, Philosophy and Speech Communication, Utah State University.

Seiter, John and Eric Dutson (2006), �The Effect of Compliments on Tipping Behavior in Hair Styling Salons,� unpublished manuscript, Utah State University.

Sheldon, Kennon, Tim Kasser, Linda Houser-Marko, and Taisha Jones (2003), �Owniing One�s Actions: Chronological Age, Autonomous Motivation and Subjective Well-Being,� Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia.

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Starbuck, Mark (2000), Tipping Practices: Close Relatives and Distant Cousins. Masters thesis, Dept. of Sociology, University of Oxford.

Starbuck, Mark (2002), "Tipping Practices Worldwide: Preliminary Findings," paper presented at SCR 4th Annual Graduate Student retreat, May 8-10, Central European University, Budapest. Available at <www.yale.edu?scr/starbuck.doc>.

Starbuck, Mark (2004), An Investigation into Cross-National Differences in Tipping Practices and Attitudes. Doctoral dissertation, Dept. of Sociology, University of Oxford.

Straub, Alyson (2006), �The Effects of Racial Interaction on Tipping,� unpublished student paper, Dominican University of California.

Tan, Ron (2003), �An Economic Perspective on Restaurant Tipping,� Undergraduate honors thesis, Department of Economics, Occidental College.

Tanvuia, Alexandra, Billy Bai, Kathryn LaTour and Seyhmus Baloglu (2006), �A Cross Cultural Analysis of Tipping Behavior: An Application of Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique,� 11 th Annual Graduate Education and Graduate Student Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, Seattle, WA.

Tanvuia, Alexandra (2004), �The Custom of Tipping and Its Underlying Motives: A Cross-Cultural Perspective,� Unpublished masters thesis, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Unknown (1990), �Am I My Brother�s Keeper? The Social Psychology of Tipping Behavior,� Unpublished paper from unknown source.

Unknown (2000), �Finger Tips: Effects of Touch on Gratuities Received in Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Dyads,� Unpublished paper submitted to JASP.

Unknown (2004), �A Model of Tipping behavior in the Chinese Restaurant Industry,� Unpublished paper submitted to the International Journal of Hospitality Management.

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Vreugdenhil, Nienke (2002), �Tipping in Holland,� English summary of a thesis, Wageningen University, Holland.����������

Vreugdenhil, Mienke (2002), �fooien een ondersoek nar motieven, attitudes en bepalende factoren.� unpublished thesis/dissertation, Wageningen University, Holland

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Wang, Shuo (2007). �How to Present Surcharges: A Restaurant Gratuity Perpsective,� unpublished manuscript, Cornell Hotel School, Ithaca, NY.

Wang, Shuo and Michael Lynn (2007), �The Effects on perceived Restaurant Expensiveness of Tipping and Its Alternatives,� CHR REport, Vol. 7, No.3. Available online at http://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/research/chr/pubs/reports/ .

Wildes, Vivienne J., Stuart Mann and Fred DeMicco (2002). The Penn State/USA Today Restaurant Service Survey. Unpublished manuscript, Penn State University, available at <http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/v/j/vjw100/research_progress.html>.

Wisneski, Anne (200?), �Effect of a Female Food Server�s Attractiveness on Restaurant Tipping,� unpublished undergraduate thesis, Western Michigan University.

Woodhead, Robert (2000), �Tipping � A Method for Optimizing Compensation for Intellectual Property,� Unpublished paper at <http:/tipping.selfpromotion.com/>.

YAN, Jing (2004), Tipping in mainland-China and its Relationship with Service Quality,� Unpublished undergraduate thesis for BA in Hospitality management, Glion Institute of Higher Education.

Zabriske, Kim (2003), �Tipping in the restaurant Industry: Can Stickers Affect the Way Customers Tip?,� Student paper submitted to Prof. Michael Lynn at the school of Hotel Administration, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

 

 

Last updated October 2008

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